Fast Facts: Lymphoma
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The fluid lymph contains waste products from body tissues as well as immune system cells. Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped organs linked by your lymphatic vessels.
Facts and Statistics | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
They are part of your immune system. They store lymphocytes and act as filters to trap foreign particles. Lymph nodes are located throughout your body in your neck, underarms and groin and behind your knees. They are also deeper inside your body in your chest, abdomen and pelvic area. Along with lymph nodes, you have other lymph tissue, including organs related to your immune and blood-forming systems, such as your spleen, thymus and bone marrow. Most NHLs — about 90 percent — begin in the B cells. The most common subtype of B-cell lymphoma is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but there are several other NHL B-cell subtypes.
About 10 percent of NHLs begin in the T cells. In some of these, natural killer cells are also involved. Read more about NHL T-cell subtypes. It occurs mainly in the skin but may involve lymph nodes, blood and other organs. Some subtypes have features of both indolent and aggressive disease, making them difficult to classify into either group. Symptoms of NHL can come on very quickly. Some people are diagnosed with the disease within days to weeks of getting symptoms.
Some types of NHL come on slowly over several months.
NHL symptoms may be similar to symptoms caused by other conditions that are not related to cancer. Check with your doctor if you feel concerned about any symptoms you have. If your doctor suspects you may have lymphoma, they will do a physical exam to look for signs of the disease and ask about your health history. To confirm the presence of lymphoma, you will need a biopsy. This means removing part or all of a lymph node or a small sample of tissue surgically or with a needle.
Experts in identifying blood-related cancers hematopathologists look at the cells under a microscope to diagnose the disease and accurately identify the type. If you have lymphoma, you may need more tests to identify the type or subtype. These include an immunohistochemistry study; immunophenotyping, or flow cytometry; and cytogenetic analysis. Staging means finding out how far lymphoma has spread in your lymph system or other parts of your body.
Accurate staging allows your doctors to choose the most appropriate therapy for you — and help you avoid therapy that is not likely to be effective in your situation. If your lymphoma comes back after treatment, it is called recurrent or relapsed. Your doctor will order imaging or other tests to restage it. NHL is one of the most common cancers in the United States, with about 72, people newly diagnosed each year. Doctors do not know what causes NHL. It is more common in men than in women, and the risk increases with age. Keep in mind that many people who get the disease have none of these risk factors, and most people with these risk factors do not develop the disease.
In people with lymphoma, something goes wrong inside the lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell made in the bone marrow and found in the blood and lymph tissue. NHL can spread through the lymph system to other lymph nodes and outside the lymph nodes to the bone marrow, lungs or liver. NHL can be cured or controlled for many years in many people who have the disease. What is the lymph system?
In MDS, immature blood cells referred to as blasts are abnormal and build up in the bone marrow and the blood. Because of the proliferation of abnormal, immature cells, there are fewer healthy, functioning red and white blood cells and platelets. Treatment options for myelodysplastic syndromes include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, stem cell or bone marrow transplantation, and supportive care treatment to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
Treatment will depend upon the type and stage of myelodysplastic syndrome. New types of treatments are being developed and tested in clinical trials. Myeloproliferative neoplasms MPN are types of blood cancer that begin with an abnormal mutation change in a stem cell in the bone marrow. The change leads to an overproduction of any combination of white cells, red cells and platelets. This group of blood disorders includes polycythemia vera, essential primary thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis. Treatment options include:. If not treated, it can lead to serious bleeding or the formation of blood clots thrombosis.
Some people with ET may not require treatment but others may need to take low-dose aspirin, hydroxyurea, anagrelide, or interferon. Novel new treatments are currently being developed and tested as a result of breakthroughs on the genetics of the disease. In MF, there is excessive scar tissue in the bone marrow, which impairs the ability of the marrow to produce blood cells.
This can result in a number of blood-associated disorders and problems. Treatment depends upon the type of blood cells that are affected by the disease. Facts and Statistics. Print Glossary.
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About Blood Cancers There are to types of blood cancers and related disorders. When there are abnormal or too few red blood cells, the person is at risk of anemia. White blood cells that are critical for fighting infections and disease Platelets that play an essential role in blood clotting.
Figure 2: Estimated number of new annual cancer cases, all cancers Did you know: Blood cancers are the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer in Canada. Although there has been little change in the lifetime probability of developing most forms of blood cancer between and , there have been increases in the rate at which Canadians are diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia and myeloma, due to impact of an ageing population.
Despite these advances, the five-year survival rate for most blood cancers are much lower than many other cancers. Did you know: In an estimated 7, Canadians died from leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. On an age standardized basis, mortality rates for leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloma fell between and due to advances in diagnosis and treatment. Did you know: The age standardized mortality of Leukemia has declined by 1. Did you know: More Canadians than ever are living with the effects of a blood cancer.master-ori.com/profiles/14.php
Lymphoma in Children – Fast Facts
Did you know: Each year up to Canadians with PV are at risk of serious complications such as blood clots. Did you know: Essential or primary thrombocythemia increases the risk of bleeding disorders. Did you know: Myelofibrosis impairs the functioning of the bone marrow and can lead to a number of serious complications.
Figure 6: Type of blood cancers diagnosed in children 0 - Canada — At the same time it is estimated that at least two-thirds of pediatric cancer survivors will experience persistent long term effects from chemotherapy or radiation.