Genesis, A Royal Epic: Introduction, Translation, and Notes

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An essential difference between the Gilgamesh Epic and Genesis is that the former is a polytheistic mythology, whereas the latter is based on a monotheistic theology. In the Gilgamesh Epic, it is obvious that Enlil, who mainly decreed the flood, is not omnipotent or omniscient because a fellow god Ea thwarted him.

Furthermore, as noted above, Enlil is blamed because of his lack of reflectiveness in the Epic XI , Holzinger describes the gods as follows:. The gods of the Babylonian account are truly pagan in their lies and toleration of lies, in their hunger for the sacrifice, in their behavior, in the caprice with which they deal with people, and in the reversal of their moods. As an illustration, circumventing the oath, Ea hinted to Utnapishtim about the flood and gave directions to build a ship by speaking to him from outside the wall of the reed hut XI 20— If Utnapishtim is really worthy to be saved, Ea should not approve or swear with the other gods in the council because they are unjust.

In either case, it is clear that not all the gods in the assembly act ethically. Ea even instructed Utnapishtim to mislead the inhabitants of Shurppak in order that they would not realize a flood was coming even when the huge ship was being built XI 38— The following are the text, transliteration, and translation of XI 46— But Ea knew that the people of Shurippak would interpret these words differently.

On the other hand, the Genesis account is based on monotheism so that there is no opposition, division, or deception in one God. God has absolute sovereignty and a consistently dignified character. Once all were inside, Noah evidently being last, a remarkable thing took place. This proved a final assurance to the occupants that they were in the will of God and under His protection. The presumed documents, allegedly dating from the tenth to the fifth centuries b.

Each of these documents is claimed to have its own characteristics and its own theology, which often contradicts that of the other documents. The Pentateuch is thus depicted as a patchwork of stories, poems and laws. However, this view is not supported by conclusive evidence, and intensive archaeological and literary research has tended to undercut many of the arguments used to challenge Mosaic authorship.

The list could go on and on. The book of Genesis is foundational to the understanding of the rest of the Bible. Its message is rich and complex, and listing its main elements gives a succinct outline of the Biblical message as a whole. It is supremely a book that speaks about relationships, highlighting those between God and his creation, between God and humankind, and between human beings.

It is thoroughly monotheistic, taking for granted that there is only one God worthy of the name and opposing the ideas that there are many gods polytheism , that there is no god at all atheism and that everything is divine pantheism.

The character of god

It clearly teaches that the one true God is sovereign over all that exists i. It introduces us to the way in which God initiates and makes covenants with his chosen people, pledging his love and faithfulness to them and calling them to promise theirs to him. It establishes sacrifice as the substitution of life for life ch. More than half of Heb 11—a NT list of the faithful—refers to characters in Genesis.

The message of a book is often enhanced by its literary structure and characteristics. This introduction to the main story sketches the period from Adam to Abraham and tells about the ways of God with the human race as a whole. This section is in turn composed of three narrative cycles Abraham-Isaac, — ; Isaac-Jacob, — ; ; Jacob-Joseph, — , interspersed by the genealogies of Ishmael —18 and Esau ch.

Such emphasis on divinely chosen men and their families is perhaps the most obvious literary and theological characteristic of the book of Genesis as a whole. Conrad and Edward G.

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Drewermann Eugen. PaThSt 4. Driver S.

London : Methuen Eissfeldt Otto. Edited by Rudolf Sellheim and Fritz Maass. Elliger K. Rudolph eds. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Stuttgart : Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft Elliott John H. AB 37B. Elliott Ralph H. The Message of Genesis.

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Louis, MS : Abbott Emerton John A. Edited by Michael V. Klein Baruch J. Schwartz and Nili Shupak. Enns Peter.

Epstein I. London : Soncino Eslinger Lyle. Etz Donald V.

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Evans Craig A. Porter eds. Dictionary of New Testament Background. Evelyn-White Hugh G. Evelyn-White Huge G. Fabry Heinz-Josef. This site uses cookies , tags, and tracking settings to store information that help give you the very best browsing experience. Close this message. Author: Jaap Doedens. Free access. Full Text. Bibliography Achtemeier Paul J. Achtemeier , Paul J. Minneapolis : Fortress , Ackerman , James S.

Adam-Veleni , Polyxeni and Evangelia Stefani , eds. Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki, publication Thessaloniki : Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki , Adelman , Rachel. Leiden : Brill , Adler , William.

Genesis: Translation and Commentary

Aland , Kurt , and Barbara Aland. Grand Rapids : Eerdmans , Albright , W.

London : Athlone Press , Alexander , Philip S. Allen , James P. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , Al-Shorman , Abdulla. Altaner , Berthold , and Alfred Stuiber. Freiburg : Herder , Alter , Robert. New York : Norton , New York : Basic Books , Amihay , Aryeh. Anderson , Gary. Anderson , R. CNT -3 Kampen : Kok , Aquinas , Thomas. Rome : Forzani , English translation: Benzinger edition, Arnold , Bill T. Grand Rapids : Baker Academic , Assmann , Jan. Assohoto , Barnabe , and Samuel Ngewa.

Does the Genesis creation account come from the Babylonian Enuma Elish? |

Nairobi : WordAlive Publishers , Astruc , Jean. Brussels : Fricx , Atkinson , David. Leicester : Inter-Varsity Press , Bacher , Wilhelm. Bailey , Kenneth E. Bandstra , Andrew J. Barr , David R. Barr , James.